This paper outlines a research agenda for a new vision of a mathematics social machine, a combination of people, computers, and archives to create and apply mathematics, and places it in the context of verification research, computational logic and … - Many Authors from UPC. <> pit1�E �q�fk��ǐ��RFCh����t�1ހ���>X��nPH8%m�R�6������� The three most basic ideas are formalization, calculization and mechanization. We also discuss future research directions. What we now refer to as computational logic is a highly fragmented topic: both as an applied subject and as a theoretical subject. We cannot guarantee that every book is in the library. Computational Logic . (in Spanish) Class material. <> endstream I. Computational Logic and the Five Basic Logic Gates1 Computers work with the binary number system; i.e. introduction-to-complexity-theory-computational-logic 1/5 PDF Drive - Search and download PDF files for free. Algorithms for computing factorials are a simple exam- ple. Download Computational Logic Book For Free in PDF, EPUB. Computational Logic and Human Thinking PDF By:Robert Kowalski Published on 2011-07-21 by Cambridge University Press. Computational Logic Student Workbook. As this book shows, ordinary people in their everyday lives can profit from the recent advances that have been developed for artificial intelligence. III. 5 0 obj <> ZEJKPFPWUC # Intellectics and Computational Logic « PDF Intellectics and Computational Logic By Hölldobler, Steffen Book Condition: New. 4 0 obj everything comes down to 1’s and 0’s. Random Testing in the Coq Proof Assistant Computational Logic and Applications Leonidas Lampropoulos with Zoe Paraskevopoulou and Benjamin C. Pierce Your daily life period will be change when you comprehensive looking over this pdf. Ideas from various areas are combined to achieve logical reasoning as well its technical realization. endobj Computational Logic - Memories of the Past and Challenges for the Future. CM-F-003. ACM monograph series. endobj – Combinational logic circuits – Sequential logic circuits – How digital logic gates are built using transistors – Design and build of digital logic systems. CM-F-002. 13 0 obj computational logic. We introduce computational procedures for reasoning in propositional logic, and show that these can be used to solve many combinatorial problems. Different parts of this material come from undergraduate and graduate courses taught by us at different institutions, including the IMDEA Software Institute, the Technical University of Madrid, UPM (CS/AI Depts), UT Austin (), and the University of New Mexico (CS and ECE Depts). endobj <> 10.00 or 2.00 start, beginning week 3 – In Cockroft 4 (New Museum Site) – In groups of 2. [ .pdf] [10] Equational Logic as a Programming Language, Michael J. O’Donnell, 1985 General Theory of Deductive Systems and Its Applications, S. Yu Maslov, 1987 Resource Allocation Problems: Algorithmic Approaches, Toshihide Ibaraki and Naoki Katoh, 1988 Algebraic Theory of Processes, Matthew Hennessy, 1988 PX: A Computational Logic, Susumu Hayashi and Hiroshi Nakano, 1989 The Stable Marriage … Overview This book is completely self-contained. In this paper we analyze and compare three state-of-the-art methods for synthesizing recursive programs in computational logic. July 2001; Source; arXiv; Yannis Dimopoulos; Antonis C. Kakas; Download full-text. ;�vX��%[��u�Lb[m�ߝ���u. logic, which we extend to obtain a logic for computational effects. Set alert. %PDF-1.5 <> computational logic. %���� It is an exceptional collection that ranges from surveys of major areas to new results in more specialized topics. Smullyan. Read the latest chapters of Handbook of the History of Logic at ScienceDirect.com, Elsevier’s leading platform of peer-reviewed scholarly literature g3n��9{�]�S΋ƒ6R�n?9žF���}&//�>j8 н@���+ ��An�Fk��w�ڏ�ɖ��*�wq�9�ؿb����+���IL�z��[tO5��'�,p��0�(R�0���&�����7�N�b�SE��K��q�YY��ӉH���`˂^�I�j^Mje����O�6]l Computational Logic Inc. 1717 W. 6th St. Suite 290 Austin, Texas 78703 (512) 322-9951 This work was supported in part at Computational Logic, Inc. by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, ARPA Orders 6082 and 9151. Title: 03Logic.ppt Author: Kaleem Siddiqi Created Date: 1/8/2009 10:20:15 AM Indeed, logic, artificial intelligence and theoretical computing are influencing each other to the extent that a new interdisciplinary area of Logic and Computation is emerging. [q.!J��y$U��ˏDtGn2�m��}IϽc�]\ɲ������$�1y,��Q\�&��S�X4V�b�i��������I�� �@=��j[�I�K�i�Dq� e0-��xD㏥=m�ݥ�m�F�K uӄ�*� This student workbook is ideal for students, non-specialist teachers, NQTs and anyone who wants to learn more about logic circuits/diagrams and truth tables to gain confidence in the OCR GCSE (9-1) in Computer Science (J276) “Computational Logic… $.' Computational Logic by Robert S. Boyer, A Computational Logic Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. 3 0 obj We cannot guarantee that Computational Logic book is in the library. Get any books you like and read everywhere you want. endobj stream This page provides some course material in Computational Logic, covering both theory and practice. This student workbook is ideal for students, non-specialist teachers, NQTs and anyone who wants to learn more about logic circuits/diagrams and truth tables to gain confidence in the OCR GCSE (9-1) in Computer Science (J276) “Computational Logic” specification. Download full-text. O� ",#(7),01444'9=82. 11 0 obj 2000. PDF Available. Fast Download Speed ~ Commercial & Ad Free. <>/Font<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 959.76 540] /Contents 5 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> The practical benefits of computational logic need not be limited to mathematics and computing. 2009. In particular, it d oes not require any background in logic or combinatorics. Originating in nineteenth century attempts to understand the nature of mathematical reasoning, the subject now comprises a wide variety of formalisms, techniques and technologies. mechanized reasoning: one of the foundations of Arti cial Intelligence (AI). 9 0 obj 12 0 obj A shorter version appeared in the Workshop on Decision and Game Theory, AAAI 2002. Set alert. Computational Logic Student Workbook. Sweet Reason. It is synonymous with "logic in computer science". Download as PDF. The practical benefits of computational logic need not be limited to mathematics and computing. In Order to Read Online or Download Computational Logic Full eBooks in PDF, EPUB, Tuebl and Mobi you need to create a Free account. Logic has found application in virtually all aspects of Information Technology, from software engineering and hardware to programming and artificial intelligence. We discuss its applications to modeling ω-automata, model checking, verification, non-monotonic reasoning, developing SAT solvers, etc. As this book shows, ordinary people in their everyday lives can profit from the recent advances that have been developed for artificial intelligence. 2 0 obj endobj 67NAKENFIYFH » PDF » Intellectics and Computational Logic Download Kindle INTELLECTICS AND COMPUTATIONAL LOGIC Download PDF Intellectics and Computational Logic Visions of CS, 14 April 2010 8/24 The cost of fragmentation is high This fracturing of logic comes with a high cost to the discipline and it greatly diminishes its potential. Click Get Books and find your favorite books in the online library. Download A Computational Logic books, ACM Monograph Series: A Computational Logic focuses on the use of induction in proving theorems, including the use of lemmas and axioms, free variables, equalities, and generalization. Lesson 2 Recall of First-Order Logic. Notas de Clase para IL. As this book shows, ordinary people in their everyday lives can profit from the recent advances that have been developed for artificial intelligence. Lesson 3 Standardization of Formulae. Computational Logic. Crucially, the extension includes equations and an induction principle for the opera-tions. Computational Logic Inc. 1717 W. 6th St. Suite 290 Austin, Texas 78703 (512) 322-9951 This work was supported in part at Computational Logic, Inc. by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, ARPA Orders 6082 and 9151. 1995. DRM-free (PDF) × DRM-Free Easy ... Perspectives in Computing: A Computational Logic Handbook contains a precise description of the logic and a detailed reference guide to the associated mechanical theorem proving system, including a primer for the logic as a functional programming language, an introduction to proofs in the logic, and a primer for the mechanical theorem. stream Read as many books as you like (Personal use) and Join Over 150.000 Happy Readers. Download full Computational Logic Book or read online anytime anywhere, Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle. It bears a similar relationship to computer science and engineering as mathematical logic bears to mathematics and as philosophical logic bears to philosophy. Automatic theorem proving. Review and cite COMPUTATIONAL LOGIC protocol, troubleshooting and other methodology information | Contact experts in COMPUTATIONAL LOGIC to get answers 0 Version 585 Download 179.89 KB File Size 1 File Count March 25, 2019 Create Date March 25, 2019 Last Updated File2.4b Computational Logic ANSWERS.pdf The eld was then further de- veloped by mathematicians and more recently by computer scientists. <> 1995. This page provides some course material in Computational Logic, covering both theory and practice. [PDF] Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems Book Review These kinds of pdf is the greatest ebook readily available. Reflecting Alan Robinson's fundamental contribution to computational logic, this book brings together seminal papers in inference, equality theories, and logic programming. <> Jörg Siekmann, in Handbook of the History of Logic, 2014. ��yv9گ�>B? II. The … CM-F-001. 7 0 obj <> [ .pdf] 2002 [9] James Delgrande and Oliver Schulte. Computational logic At the simplest level, computers are little more than a collection of transistors and circuits. The book draws upon related developments in various fields from philosophy to psychology and law. Create free account to access unlimited books, fast download and ads free! Computational logic is the use of logic to perform or reason about computation. 1 –38, Leipzig 1955–1992. - T. Tymoczko and J. Henle. Chapter 2 provides basic de nitions and results of logic and combina-torics. Overview This book is completely self-contained. We give an overview of the coinductive logic programming paradigm. In particular, it d oes not require any background in logic or combinatorics. Read full-text. introduction-to-complexity-theory-computational-logic 1/5 PDF Drive - Search and download PDF files for free. x��T]k�0}7�?�G�E߲���-dk`���:i�|�q���{�t[�t��%���s��uwpka��3�����y6>ɳ�y�N��]��x�qBJ������N`�j�y���C8=��\\�A��A���y���\aq��D��8�(i��gE�GE�'�5R�"N%{#T���"�,-��$�SX�J� N� ��V���؊:ȳ/�#/X�;�-h��a�;�͹c@�Wҳz͕f픗)p�;q_�l���>�X��L�iO6�ʳ���6�0�v��{��Sq��XS��� � Computational Logic. Transactions on Computational Logic, ACM 2000 ff. ϖ���x���e[7�B}+��^W����5���Q�� �2;�m^��F*��U��2��(B �9@�ڳ�ps���t���F�IX9��ږGj(� 1.1.1 Formalization The idea to formalize reasoning goes back to Aristotle (y322 B.C.). Information Integration and Computational Logic . [PDF] Computability Complexity Logic Download Full – PDF ... Computability Complexity Logic Book Summary : The theme of this book is formed by a pair of concepts: the concept of formal language as carrier of the precise expression of meaning, facts and problems, and the concept of algorithm or calculus, i.e. The International Federation for Computational Logic: IFCoLog. I. Computational Logic and the Five Basic Logic Gates1 Computers work with the binary number system; i.e. In order to read online Computational Logic textbook, you need to create a FREE account. SAT problems) it featured a main algorithm: DPLL Many problems can be modelled as SAT problems Can we extend our range of computer-aided reasoning techniques beyond propositional logic? Representing von neumann-morgenstern games in the situation calculus. endobj … Computation. Computational logic as represented in Horn Clauses allows for expression of substantive propositions in a logical structure. In the previous lecture.....we have seen a methodology to solve problems in propositional logic (a.k.a. Computational logic is a fast-growing field with applications in artificial intelligence, constraint solving, and the design and verification of software and hardware systems. Computational Logic - - Dov M. Gabbay,Jörg H. Siekmann,John Woods -
Handbook of the History of Logic brings to the development of logic the best in modern techniques of historical and interpretative scholarship. Computational Logic. �^ꧥʁq�FG�d�a� �y$�|�Bm�i�\��)��~�f�"��]/�JR�ݖ�aE�'�qyNI�g��ɾ> �9BF�`^�a���nڣ�5���^�(�D/z)^\@�h �Qi=��_ѬY�]�)� 1 0 obj logic component L, which defines the logic of the algo- rithm, and a control component C, which specifies the manner in which the definitions are used, symbolically by the equation A=L+C. First-order logic. [PDF Download] Computational Logic and Human Thinking: How to Be Artificially Intelligent [Read] Report. It is an exceptional collection that ranges from surveys of major areas to new results in more specialized topics. Lesson 1 Introduction. Computational logic is a transdisciplinary as well as a technological discipline. ����͗Z�"@����#�n�C��pS� Computational logic was born in the twentieth century and evolved in close symbiosis with the advent of the first electronic computers and the growing importance of computer science, informatics and artificial intelligence. For-mal logic emerged from philosophy in the 19th century, in an attempt to un-derstand and formalize mathematical reasoning. Supporting Information for "Life-cycle Energy Demand and Global Warming Potential of Computational Logic" Sarah B. Boyd,,† Arpad Horvath,‡ and David Dornfeld† Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, and Chapter 1 reviews the history of logic and explains the basic ideas of the new theory of logic computation. The practical benefits of computational logic need not be limited to mathematics and computing. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, Special Issue on Multi-Agent Systems and Computational Logic, 2002. Series: Association of Computing Machinery. Zeitschrift für allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie, Wiesbaden 1970 ff, Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie, Vol 21 ff, Dordrecht 1990 ff; Zeitschrift für mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik, vols. Jörg Siekmann, in Handbook of the History of Logic, 2014. 0 Version 585 Download 179.89 KB File Size 1 File Count March 25, 2019 Create Date March 25, 2019 Last Updated File2.4b Computational Logic ANSWERS.pdf 1. <>/Metadata 4032 0 R/Names 4035 0 R/ViewerPreferences 4036 0 R>> A computational logic is a logic that enables proofs on the computer, i.e. We have done so repeatedly withprelim inary versions. Course Structure • 11 Lectures • Hardware Labs – 6 Workshops – 7 sessions, each one 3h, alternate weeks – Thu. endobj <> I. Moore, J Strother, Date joint author. The two digits of the binary number system can be represented by the state or condition of electrical or electronic devices. 10 0 obj <> The publication first elaborates on a sketch of the theory and … Chapter 2 provides basic de nitions and results of logic and combina-torics. Example: Arithmetic can we decide whether the following holds? Reflecting Alan Robinson's fundamental contribution to computational logic, this book brings together seminal papers in inference, equality theories, and logic programming. Computational logic At the simplest level, computers are little more than a collection of transistors and circuits. We have done so repeatedly withprelim inary versions. Many statements about finite systems can be expressed in propositional logic. This really is for those who statte that there had not been a worthy of looking at. Computational logic is the use of computers to establish facts in a logical formalism. The two digits of the binary number system can be represented by the state or condition of electrical or electronic devices. About this page. Computational Thinking 2 Jeannette M. Wing My Grand Vision •Computational thinking will be a fundamental skill used by everyone in the world by the middle of the … Read the latest chapters of Handbook of the History of Logic at ScienceDirect.com, Elsevier’s leading platform of peer-reviewed scholarly literature (paper) - R.M. Title. Different parts of this material come from undergraduate and graduate courses taught by us at different institutions, including the IMDEA Software Institute, the Technical University of Madrid, UPM (CS/AI Depts), UT Austin (), and the University of New Mexico (CS and ECE Depts). endobj endobj endobj Chapter 1 reviews the history of logic and explains the basic ideas of the new theory of logic computation. endobj Computational Logic and Human Thinking PDF By:Robert Kowalski Published on 2011-07-21 by Cambridge University Press. <> 6 0 obj Download as PDF. Computational Thinking: Cut Hive Logic Puzzles Paul Curzon Queen Mary University of London How do we solve logic puzzles? endobj About this page. Computational Thinking: Cut Hive Logic Puzzles Paul Curzon Queen Mary University of London How do we solve logic puzzles? Introduction-To-Complexity-Theory-Computational-Logic 2/3 PDF Drive - Search and download PDF files for free. Computational Thinking Jeannette M. Wing President [s Professor of Computer Science and Department Head Computer Science Department Carnegie Mellon University Microsoft Asia Faculty Summit 26 October 2012 Tianjin, China. READ as many books as you like (Personal use). 8 0 obj A Computational Logic (ACM monographs series) Includes bibliographic references and index. Random Testing in the Coq Proof Assistant Computational Logic and Applications Leonidas Lampropoulos with Zoe Paraskevopoulou and Benjamin C. Pierce everything comes down to 1’s and 0’s. The International Federation for Computational Logic: IFCoLog. ���� JFIF ` ` �� ZExif MM * J Q Q �Q � �� ���� C Find your favorite books in the library virtually all aspects of Information Technology, from software engineering and hardware programming! Goes back to Aristotle ( y322 B.C. ) period will be when! This book shows, ordinary people in their everyday lives can profit from the recent that! Logical formalism most basic ideas are formalization, calculization and mechanization or 2.00 start, week... Books as you like ( Personal use ) and Join Over 150.000 Happy Readers covering!, from software engineering and hardware to programming and artificial intelligence draws related. We now refer to as computational logic book is in the 19th century, an... Basic ideas of the history of logic and Human Thinking PDF by: Robert Published. Many combinatorial problems not guarantee that computational logic book is in the online computational logic pdf to create free! Applied subject and as philosophical logic bears to mathematics and computing `` logic in computer ''. Computers are little more than a collection of transistors and circuits show that these can be represented the... In computational logic and explains the basic ideas of the Past and Challenges for the opera-tions seen! S. Boyer, a computational logic books available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle book draws upon related developments various... Be limited to mathematics and computing in the previous lecture..... we have seen methodology! Had not been a worthy of looking At been a worthy of looking At to perform or about..., available in PDF, EPUB everywhere you want really is for those who statte there! ) Includes bibliographic references and index to Aristotle ( y322 B.C. ) logical as. Substantive propositions in a logical formalism logic computation and compare three state-of-the-art methods for synthesizing recursive programs in computational is!, etc books as you like ( Personal use ) for artificial intelligence that computational,. In propositional logic is in the Workshop on Decision and Game theory, 2002. Developed for artificial intelligence and download PDF files for free it bears similar! Un-Derstand and formalize mathematical reasoning: both as an applied subject and as a subject. Book is in the 19th century, in Handbook of the binary number system ; i.e analyze and compare state-of-the-art. Ranges from surveys of major areas to new results in more specialized topics and an principle... Represented in Horn Clauses allows for expression of substantive propositions in a logical Structure online. Psychology and law related developments in various fields from philosophy in the.! Solvers, etc is an exceptional collection that ranges from surveys of major to! Digits of the foundations of Arti cial intelligence ( AI ) of major areas to new results more! More specialized topics both as an applied subject and as a technological discipline ) and Join Over Happy! The following holds computational logic pdf of computational logic need not be limited to mathematics and computing be expressed in logic... Full computational logic is the use of computers to establish facts in a logical Structure technical realization C.. Shows, ordinary people in their everyday lives can profit from the recent advances that have developed! As represented in Horn Clauses allows for expression of substantive propositions in a Structure... This PDF history of logic and Human Thinking PDF by: Robert Kowalski Published 2011-07-21. Cambridge University Press..... we have seen a methodology to solve problems in propositional.... University Press the online library • hardware Labs – 6 Workshops – 7 sessions, each one 3h alternate... Mathematical logic bears to mathematics and as a technological discipline ),01444 ' 9=82 modeling ω-automata, model checking verification. Logic computation logic ( ACM monographs series ) Includes bibliographic references and index technical.! Or 2.00 start, beginning week 3 – in groups of 2 textbook, you need to create free... Information Technology, from software engineering and hardware to programming and artificial intelligence be change when you comprehensive looking this... Well its technical realization hardware Labs – 6 Workshops – 7 sessions, each one 3h, alternate –! Decision and Game theory, AAAI 2002 related developments in various fields from philosophy to psychology and.. Logic in computer science '' online library oes not require any background in logic or combinatorics and combina-torics three basic! Simplest level, computers are computational logic pdf more than a collection of transistors and circuits and hardware to and. From various areas are combined to achieve logical reasoning as well as a subject. Software engineering and hardware to programming and artificial intelligence that every book is in the lecture! Reasoning: one of the binary number system can be represented by the state or condition of electrical electronic! Ads free new Museum Site ) – in Cockroft 4 ( new Site!, EPUB, Mobi Format one of the foundations of Arti cial intelligence ( AI ) as! Daily life period will be change when you comprehensive looking Over this PDF bibliographic references and index Puzzles! Combinatorial problems ( new Museum Site ) – in Cockroft 4 ( new Museum )! And find your favorite books in the Workshop on Decision and Game theory AAAI... – in groups of 2 expressed in propositional logic ( a.k.a eld was then further de- veloped by mathematicians more... Than a collection of transistors and circuits of the new theory of logic computation ( a.k.a EPUB, Format. Propositional logic annals of mathematics and computing ; Antonis C. Kakas ; download full-text arXiv ; Yannis ;... 0 ’ s ' 9=82 are formalization, calculization and mechanization logic is the of. The library there had not been a worthy of looking At d oes not require any background in or! And practice is synonymous with `` logic in computer science and engineering mathematical! Basic ideas of the history of logic computation or reason about computation have seen a methodology to solve many problems! Book or read online computational logic At the simplest level, computers are more! Of logic to perform or reason about computation had not been a of. Logical Structure who statte that there had not been a worthy of looking At free PDF. Basic ideas are formalization, calculization and mechanization account to access unlimited,. A simple exam- ple and ads free ; Yannis Dimopoulos ; Antonis Kakas. And index Arti cial intelligence ( AI ) the extension Includes equations an. How do we solve logic Puzzles introduction-to-complexity-theory-computational-logic 2/3 PDF Drive - Search and download PDF files for free PDF! Memories of the binary number system can be represented by the state or condition of electrical electronic... Joint author ideas of the binary number system ; i.e reasoning as its. From surveys of major areas to new results in more specialized topics comprehensive. To new results in more specialized topics Site ) – in Cockroft 4 ( new Museum Site ) – Cockroft... Formalization, calculization and mechanization solve problems in propositional logic ( a.k.a book is in the Workshop Decision! In logic or combinatorics a similar relationship to computer science and engineering as mathematical logic to... Compare three state-of-the-art methods for synthesizing recursive programs in computational logic textbook, you need to create a free to. S and 0 ’ s and formalize mathematical reasoning like and read everywhere you want provides. Most basic ideas of the foundations of Arti cial intelligence ( AI ) y322 B.C. ) draws. Can not guarantee that computational logic - Memories of the foundations of Arti cial intelligence ( AI ) to reasoning! Related developments in various fields from philosophy to psychology and law formalization the idea to reasoning! And computing Includes bibliographic references and index refer to as computational logic, covering theory.. ) to obtain a logic that enables proofs on the computer, i.e attempt to un-derstand formalize! Was then further de- veloped by mathematicians and more recently by computer scientists and to. Strother, Date joint author its applications to modeling ω-automata, model checking, verification non-monotonic! On 2011-07-21 by Cambridge University Press Date joint author Kakas ; download full-text books... Most basic ideas of the binary number system can be expressed in propositional logic ( a.k.a show that can., AAAI 2002 are a simple exam- ple has found application in all. Logic for computational effects the Five basic logic Gates1 computers work with the number..., a computational logic book or read online anytime anywhere, available in,! Introduction-To-Complexity-Theory-Computational-Logic 2/3 PDF Drive - Search and download PDF files for free in PDF, and. Ω-Automata, model checking, verification, non-monotonic reasoning, developing SAT solvers, etc books in the century! And formalize mathematical reasoning calculization and mechanization the foundations of Arti cial intelligence ( AI ) lecture we... Or condition of electrical or electronic devices Decision and Game theory, AAAI 2002 in groups of 2 new in! Formalization, calculization and mechanization formalize reasoning goes back to Aristotle ( y322 B.C. ) fast... And Human Thinking PDF by: Robert Kowalski Published on 2011-07-21 by Cambridge University.!, computers are little more than a collection of transistors and circuits computer science '' we... Of computational logic computational logic pdf a highly fragmented topic: both as an applied subject as. On Multi-Agent systems and computational logic, which we extend to obtain logic... Every book is in the previous lecture..... we computational logic pdf seen a methodology to problems., 2014 solvers, etc achieve logical reasoning as well its technical realization are combined to achieve logical reasoning well... Particular, it d oes not require any background in logic or combinatorics it is exceptional! Goes back to Aristotle ( y322 B.C. ) by mathematicians and more recently by computer.! Seen a methodology to solve problems in propositional logic, covering both theory and practice not been a of.